There are two basic elements that constitute the essence of Islamic fasting. The observation of these elements makes one’s fasting acceptable.
First- The abstinence of fast-breakers from the break of dawn until sunset. For fast-breakers the Lawgiver, meant in no uncertain terms and free from any ambiguity and confusion, abstinence from food and drink and sexual relations. Any nourishment taken by mouth or nose, or drink of any sort, water, juices, milk, ect…, should be avoided. Also, sexual intercourse during the daytime is prohibited. And smoking cigarrettes.
The proof is found in Surah Al-Bakarah ayat 187.
And now associate with them and seek what Allah has ordained for you and eat and drink until the white thread of dawn appears to you distinct from its black thread.”
والآن ربط معهم والبحث عن ما قد فرض الله لكم وكلوا واشربوا حتى الخيط الأبيض من الفجر يتبين لكم الخيط متميزة عن لونه الأسود. “
This verse define the time limis in which the worshiper is obligated to excercise abstinence. The first part of this verse is an indication of Allah’s mercy upon the worshipers by making it easy during the night hours in their relations with their spouses.
Second element of fasting is niyyah (intention). In Islamic practices, niyyah is highly rated. This remarkable element is not unique to fasting; it premeates every ounce of the believer’s undertakings from Saalat, to Zaakat, to Hajj. it is the difference between whether the actions are religious or not. This is why niyyah for fasting is to worship Allah by abstaining from fast-breakers from the break of dawn to sunset.
The evidence for intention, is mentioned in Al-Qur’an and the Sunnah. Allah subhana wa talah states: “And they have been commanded no more than to worship Allah, offering Him sincere devotion.” (98:5)
النية ، هو مذكور في آل القرآن والسنة. سبحان الله وا الدول تالة : “ولقد أمروا لا يزيد على عبادة الله ، وتقدم له الولاء الصادق”.
For whom is fasting mndatory?
The obligation of fastin is mandatory on a prso who has fulfilled these requirements:
1. He or she must be a Muslim.
3. Must have reached puberty.
4. Must be healthy.
5. Not in a state of travel.
They must be in a state of purity, neither mensing or post childbirth bleeding.
If a person flfills the above pre requisites, fasting becomes valid and mandatory. Inferring from this definition, if one of these conditions is missing, the fast will become invalid.
Days in which fasting is prohibited.
1. The two Eids.
2. Three days following Eidul Adha.
3. Singling out Friday for fasting.
4. Singling out Saturdays for fast.
5. No fasting on the day of doubt. (yamush-shakk)
6. No fasting for life. (sawnud-dhar)
7. No married woman should fast without the consent of the husband. (the exception will be within the month of Ramadan, because is obligatory)
8. Continuous fast of days and nights without break. (wisaal)